Category Archives: Classical Studies Posts
Ancient Greek Hypocrisy
Aphrodite, Ἀφροδίτης (Kluth), the Goddess of Love, Romance and Beauty (About.com: Greece Travel); Artemis, Άρτεμις (Kluth), the Goddess of the Hunt, the Forest, Wildlife, Childbirth, and the Moon (About.com: Greece Travel); Athena, Ἀθηνά (Kluth), the Goddess of Wisdom, War, and Crafts (About.com: Greece Travel); Demeter, Δήμητραν (Kluth), the Goddess of Agriculture (About.com: Greece Travel); Hera, Ἡρα (Kluth), the Queen of the Gods; Hestia, Ἑστία, the Goddess of Home and Homelife (About.com: Greece Travel) and goddess of the hearth (Crystalinks.com); Mnemosyne, the Goddess of Memory(Greek-Gods.info); Moirai, Moira Krataia, (Kerényi 33) the Goddess of Fate; the nine Muses, αἱ μοῦσαι, hai moũsai (Wikipedia), the Goddesses of the Art and Sciences; Nemesis, Νέμεσις, the messenger of Justice, the Goddess of Retribution or Divine Vengeance (Linné); Nike, ‘Νίκην,’ the Goddess of Victory (Kluth); all of them are Greek goddesses. All of them were worshiped by the Greeks for many centuries, and there are more than the ones listed. But their worshipping of female deities happens to be hypocritical. The treatment of their women is completely different to the way they treat their goddesses. Some might say that isn’t true because they didn’t treat their female goddesses any better, but it isn’t how they are treated that is the problem; it is the fact the they “existed” that makes the Greeks hypocrites. Some women are named, Clytemnestra of Mycenae was particularly important, but the rest of women are merely mentioned in passing.
Aphrodite, the Goddess of Love, Romance, and Beauty, came to be because of the castration of the God Uranus. Artemis, the Goddess of Wisdom, War, and Crafts, was the daughter of Leto and the sister of Apollo. “She was always described as a virgin huntress.” (Kerényi) Athena, the Goddess of Wisdom, War, and Crafts, was the daughter of Metis, whom Zeus had eaten because the prophecy around her was that her child would be wiser than the father. One day, Zeus got a really bad headache. After someone hit him in the head, Athena came forth fully armored. She is the protector of warriors, Odysseus from the Homer’s Odyssey for example.
Demeter, the Goddess of Agriculture. Her happiness dictates whether or not the Greeks have wheat. When her daughter Persephone is with her, she is happy, and the Greeks have the seasons Spring and Summer, but when Persephone has to go to the Underworld, her sadness causes the seasons to become Fall and Winter, causing the wheat to die. She is the key to the Greeks’ survival.
Hera, the Queen of the Gods, Zeus’s wife. She is self explanatory, cheated on constantly, but self explanatory. Zeus having his way with every woman he wants is just an example of how men were dominating society. Hestia, the Goddess of Home and Homelife.
Moirai, the Goddess of Fate. The Muses were named Calliope (Epic Poetry), Clio (History), Erato (Love Poetry), Euterpe (Music), Melpomene (Tragedy), Polyhymnia (Hymns), Terpsichore (Dance), Thaleia (Comedy), Urania (Astronomy), and they are the Goddesses of the Arts and Sciences (Greek-Gods.info). Before poets, like Homer, began reciting their oral poetry, they would call upon the aid of the Muses. They were created by Zeus, the King of the Gods, who secretly lied nine nights with Mnemosyne, the Goddess of Memory(Greek-Gods.info). We would not have the arts, which men dominated in at the time, if not for the Muses.
Nemesis is the messenger of Justice, the Goddess of Retribution or Divine Vengeance. In Greek society, if someone in their family is killed, it is their duty to kill whoever killed their relatives. Who is responsible for that? Nike, the Goddess of Victory; whenever there is a victor in battle, who is their representative? Some of the most important positions that defined Greek society were represented by female deities, the wheat, the arts, battle and victory, their justice system, love and beauty, the homelife.
In Greek society, Athens to be specific, the women were “viewed as a burden to her husband, and her father must contribute a dowry for her support” (Pomeroy 84). In Sparta, on the other hand, because they lacked
precious metals, slaves, or other movable wealth, there would be little, except land and horses, to constitute a substantial and useful dowry. A theory about dowry supports the view that there was a time when dowries did not exist in Sparta. Dowries are found principally in parts of the Mediterranean where men cultivate land with a plow and own the instruments and beasts needed for production. In such societies, women’s work was undervalued (Pomeroy 83-84)1.
The Spartans were the opposite of Athens, so they are the exception. Their women had more rights than the rest of the Greek city-states, so Sparta shall be left out of the picture here on. Athens is where the concentration shall be kept from here on after.
Everything was decided for women in Athens; how they acted, what work they did, who they married, etc. “As a logical consequence of the woman’s duty to Athens, marriage and motherhood were considered the primary goals of every female citizen” (Pomeroy 62)2.
The birth of a child, especially a son, was considered a fulfillment of the goal of the marriage. A girl was ideally first married at fourteen to a man of about thirty. Since marriage was the preferable condition for women, and men were protective of their women, a dying husband, like a divorcing husband, might arrange a future marriage for his wife (Pomeroy 64)2.
In the late fifth century B.C., the need for safety behind city walls lead many Athenians to turn to urban living, abandoning farming. The effect of urbanization upon women was to have their activities moved indoors, which made their labor less visible; hence less valued (Pomeroy 71). Yet their Goddesses, Athena for her wisdom especially, was highly valued. Why did they build the Parthenon for the Goddess Athena, and then repress their women?
Women were not allowed to participate in male activities, such as politics, intellectual and military training, athletics, and the sort of business approved for gentlemen. “Direct participation in the affairs of government–including holding public office, voting, and serving as jurors and as soldiers– was possible only for male citizens” (Pomeroy 74)2. Women stayed at home and sometimes took on the same tasks as slaves, which made the work they did seem even less valued (Pomeroy 71)2 than it already was. If ever there was a crisis, it was not the women the men chose to save, but their children and slaves (Pomeroy 71)2.
Concerning women and whether or not they should be allowed to work, Xenophon reports a conversation between Socrates and Aristarchus. Aristarchus was complaining about the fact fourteen of his female relatives had moved into his home for protection and he could not afford to maintain them. Socrates suggested putting them to work, but Aristarchus found it to be demeaning. Socrates is able to convince Aristarchus otherwise and says that women themselves would be happier if employed productively (Pomeroy 71)2. The only time women were appreciated was when the men of the household came to realize a woman’s skill for “spinning and weaving–skills they had learned as part of a gentlewoman’s education, in order to be able to supervise the slaves” (Pomeroy 71-72)2 could also be used to make a profit.
Slave women and the women of the household did similar activities, but the one exclusively for them was the transportation of water by balancing pitchers on their heads. “Because fetching water involved social mingling, gossip at the fountain, and possible flirtation, slaves girls were usually sent on this errand,” which might lead one to assume it was the slave women who had a little more fun than the women of the household. Women weren’t thought to be intelligent either. Women did not go to the market because “the feeling of purchase or exchange was a financial transaction too complex for women” (Pomeroy 72)2.
Those are the upper class women, of course. The “poorer women, even citizens, went out to work, most of them pursuing occupations that were an extension of women’s work in the home. Women were employed as washerwomen, as woolworkers, and in other clothing industries. Women were also employed as nurses of children and midwives” (Pomeroy 73)2. Religion is a more interesting topic, of course.
“Athena Polias was the patron goddess of Athens, and the priestess of Athena Polias was a person of great importance and some influence” (Pomeroy 75)2. A goddess is of importance. A woman is of importance. Patron means “a person whose support or protection is solicited or acknowledged by the dedication of a book or other work” (dictionary.com) In this case, our patron goddess received a priestess. If there is a patron goddess and a priestess to go along with it, making that one woman of high importance, doesn’t that mean women are important? Why don’t the rest of the women get the same treatment?
Now, if a woman IS important, they aren’t treated any better than those of housewives. They’re treated worse. Clytemnestra, the wife of Agamemnon, the king of Mycenae, killed her husband because of hysteria, and was ultimately killed in retaliation by her son Orestes. She is “one of the most unforgettable women in Greek mythology. She is complex and controversial, viewed most often as a cold-blooded murderess and unfaithful wife to one of the glorious heroes of the great Trojan War.” (Bell 133) Even though she had committed the sin of killing her husband, she had “reason” to do so. “Judging from her reaction to the sacrifice of Iphigeneia, she was fiercely devoted to her children. She had ample motives for participating in the murder of Agamemnon. He had sacrificed their daughter and then at the end of the war brought home with him a Trojan princess who had borne him two children.” (Bell 135) Orestes killed Clytemnestra and, as a consequence called upon the Furies, three important goddesses in charge of driving those who killed their relatives made.
What’s interesting about this entire affair is, of course, Orestes, eventually, gets off the hook. The God Apollo comes to his aid when Orestes stands on trial. Apollo says that Clytemnestra was merely a vessel and not really a relative. He proves his point by pointing out that Athena was born from a man herself. The Goddess Athena has, by this point, been effeminized and chooses to take Orestes’ side, freeing Orestes from the Furies. But the thing that ultimately killed Clytemnestra was her own “vanity and self-esteem.” (Bell 136) The “important” women are used in legends and myths to show male dominance in issues, especially by having a female Goddess be sexist against her own gender, which is probably what they use as an excuse to treat their women the way they do, but Athena is still a woman, and the Greek men are still hypocrites for worshiping her, and the rest of the goddesses, in the first place.
What is possibly the most hypocritical thing the Athenians could have done is to name their city-state after a goddess, Athena to be exact. The story goes the Goddess Athena and the sea God Poseidon gave a gift to the people of Athens. Athena gave the people an olive tree while Poseidon gave the people a salt water spring. The people chose the olive tree because it could not only provide food, but the wood could also provide shelter. Upon taking Athena’s gift, they named their city-state after her, Athens. Athena gets a temple, but what do the women of the city-state get. Nothing but a foot in their rear ends.
Bell, Robert E. Women of Classical Mythology: a Biographical Dictionary. Santa Barbara, Calif.: ABC-CLIO, 1991. Print.
Kerényi, Karl. The Gods of the Greeks. New York: Thames and Hudson, 1979. Print.
Kluth, Frederick John “A List of Greek Gods and Goddesses” RWAAG <http://www.fjkluth.com/glist.html>
Linné, Carl von “Nemesis” Greek Mythology Link <http://homepage.mac.com/cparada/GML/Nemesis.html>
“The Muses were nine goddesses presiding over the arts and the sciences” Greek-Gods.info <http://www.greek-gods.info/ancient-greek-gods/muses/>
“The Olympians” Crystalinks.com <http://www.crystalinks.com/hestia.html>
Pomeroy, Sarah B. Goddesses, Whores, Wives, and Slaves: Women in Classical Antiquity. New York: Schocken, 1975, 1995. Print. (2)
Pomeroy, Sarah B. Spartan Women. Oxford: Oxford UP, 2002. Print. (1)
“The Twelve Olympian Gods and Goddesses of Greek Mythology” About.com: Greece Travel <http://gogreece.about.com/cs/mythology/a/olympiangods.htm>
Take our tour of imaginary lands in literature
Camelot is the castle and court of Arthurian legend. It first appeared in a 12th-century romance by French writer Chretien de Troyes. Countless writers and artists have found a muse in the stories that take place in the realm of Camelot, such as Lord Alfred Tennyson in “Sir Lancelot and Queen Guinevere,” and Mark Twain in A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur’s Court. Though Camelot is in ruins now if it ever existed, Arthurian legend is still told and retold today.
The most popular depiction of Xanadu was dreamed up by Samuel Taylor Coleridge in his 1797 poem “Kubla Khan” under the influence of opiates, where he describes Xanadu as “a stately pleasure-dome.” This famous poem was inspired by Marco Polo’s reported visit to Xanadu, the summer residence of Mongol ruler Kublai Khan.Xanadu has surfaced in 20th-century film, making an appearance as the grand estate in Orson Welles’ 1941 film Citizen Kane, as well as being featured as the title of a cult fantasy musical in 1980.
3. El Dorado
El Dorado (which literally means “the golden one”) is the name of a mythical lost city thought to be located in South America on the Amazon. This term first appeared in English in the late 16th century; as legends of the city of gold spread, explorers including Sir Walter Raleigh made expeditions in hopes of returning to their home countries with riches beyond imagination. All expeditions failed to locate the gilded city. The term El Dorado can be used metaphorically today to refer to any place promising great wealth.
L. Frank Baum’s beloved children’s book The Wonderful Wizard of Oz gained so much immediate popularity that within two years of its publication in 1900, it was adapted into a Broadway musical. In 1939 the musical was made into the classic film, which not only solidified the career of the then-teenaged Judy Garland, but also brought the term Ozinto widespread usage. From that point on,Oz took on the more general sense of a fantastical place. Ironically, in 1903 Baum wrote that the name Oz came to him while looking at an “O-Z” label on a file cabinet.
5. Vanity Fair
Vanity Fair first appeared in John Bunyan’s The Pilgrim’s Progress in 1678. In this Christian allegory, Vanity Fair is an ongoing fair in the town of Vanity where worldly ostentation and frivolity are valued above all else. William Makepeace Thackeray titled his 1848 novel Vanity Fair in a nod to Bunyan, highlighting the selfishness of Victorian society. He even used the construction Vanity-Fairian to describe characters in his novel. Today the concept endures on newsstands all over the world with Vanity Fair magazine.
First written about by Plato around 360 BCE, Atlantis is the mythical island that is believed to have existed in the Atlantic Ocean west of Gibraltar before it sank deep into the sea. The name Atlantis comes from the Greek literally meaning “daughter of Atlas.” Atlas was the Greek Titan condemned by Zeus to hold the celestial spheres on his shoulders. While many locations have been proposed as the historical site of Atlantis, to this day the legendary lost city remains lost.
(Although, I disagree with this. 95% of the ocean floor has yet to be explored. You cannot say mermaids or Atlantis does not exist yet. :P)
Sir Thomas More coined the term utopia in his 1516 book of the same title. It comes from the Latin literally meaning “nowhere.” More’s Utopia depicts an invented island society that enjoys perfection in law, politics, and all social interactions. Within 100 years of its publication, Utopia, in addition to referring to More’s vision of the perfect society, became metaphorically applied to any perfect place. Three centuries after utopia entered English,dystopia entered the language as a word describing the opposing concept.
Erewhon was first published anonymously in 1872. The author Samuel Butler named his book and invented country Erewhon because it is an anagram of nowhere, a cynical take on More’s Utopia. George Orwell praised Butler’s foresight on artificial intelligence. In Erewhon machines are outlawed because they are seen as potentially hazardous; should they become self-aware, they would endanger humans. While Erewhon does not really exist, it left a mark. The concern for self-aware machines is a recurring theme in science fiction.
Shangri-La is a fictional Tibetan land of eternal youth in James Hilton’s 1933 novel Lost Horizon. The term la means “mountain pass” in Tibetan, and the imaginary land of Shangri-La was inspired by National Geographic articles describing isolated Tibetan mountain communities. One county in the Yunnan Province even officially renamed itself to Shangri-La County in 2001 in an effort to promote tourism, claiming that the imaginary paradise that Hilton wrote of is in fact real.
(I found this on dictionary.com.)
Is anything missing?
- Imaginary Ancestry (kaleidomag.net)
- 4 AMAZING MYTHICAL WORLDS (you can actually visit) (primortus.wordpress.com)
- Merlin, Harry Potter or Camelot? (moremerlinsweden.wordpress.com)
Below, I have put together a little reading list compiled from the books I read while in college along with some I read on my own. There are also some books that were recommended to me by Empower Network.
I did this because one cannot be efficient if they have not yet learned from the past. It shall be updated as often as I am able.
I took time one day to go through Amazon.com and find these books at the lowest prices I could find. If you wish to purchase any of these books, click their titles. It will take you straight there.
Does anyone else have any ideas?
Learn From Other Writers
- Frankenstein by Mary Shelley
- The Unabridged Edgar Allen Poe
- Romeo and Juliet by William Shakespeare
- The Scarlet Letter by Nathaniel Hawthorne
- The Anchor Book of New American Short Stories by Ben Marcus
- Seven Novels by Jane Austen (this book includes all of her novels)
- The Norton Anthology of American Literature (Shorter Seventh Edition) by Nina Baym
- The Norton Anthology of English Literature (Single-Volume Edition) by Stephen Greenblatt
- The Norton Anthology of English Literature, Volumes D-F: The Romantic Period through the Twentieth Century and After, 8th Edition by Stephen Greenblatt
Improving Your Own Writing
- Hypnotic Writing by Joe Vitale
- Language Myths by Laurie Bauer
- The 3 A.M. Epiphany by Brian Kiteley
- A Pocket Style Manual by Diana Hacker
- 13 Ways of Looking at the Novel by Jane Smiley
- Fiction Writer’s Workshop by Josip Novakovich
- Writing Poetry by Chad Davidson and Gregory Fraser
- The Element Encyclopedia of Secret Signs and Symbols by Adele Nozedar
- The Wadsworth Anthology of Poetry, Shorter Edition (with Poetry 21 CD-ROM) by Jay Parini
- How to Read Literature Like a Professor: A Lively and Entertaining Guide to Reading Between the Lines by Thomas C. Foster
- The Writer’s Idea Book 10th Anniversary Edition: How to Develop Great Ideas for Fiction, Nonfiction, Poetry, and Screenplays by Jack Heffron
Learn From Past Art
- Art across Time Volume One/Edition 4
- Critical Perspective on Art History/Edition 1
- Critical Tradition: Classic Texts and Contemporary Trends / Edition 3
Improving Your Own Art
- Basic Photography 01: Composition by David Präkel
- The Ultimate Field Guide to Photography by National Geographic
- The Iliad by Homer
- The Odyssey by Homer
- Tacticus: Annals Book 1 edited by N.P. Miller
- Metamorphoses by Ovid
- The Early History of Rome by Livy
- The Rise of the Roman Empire by Polybius
- Fall of the Roman Republic by Plutarch
For Internet Marketing/Expanding And Empowering The Mind
- Rich Dad, Poor Dad by Robert T. Kiyosaki
- Increase Your Financial IQ by Robert T. Kiyosaki
- Selling 101: What Every Successful Sales Professional Needs to Know by Zig Ziglar
- Start with Why: How Great Leaders Inspire Everyone to Take Action by Simon Sinek
- Freakonomics: A Rogue Economist Explores the Hidden Side of Everything by Steven D. Levitt and Stephen J. Dubner
- Women’s Lives: Multicultural Perspectives
Does anyone else have any ideas?
- 20131005- Recommended Reading Updates (titansmonria21.wordpress.com)
- 20131005- Recommended Reading Update Continued (titansmonria21.wordpress.com)
- The Correction of a Simple False Assumption Moved the Human Race Forward (titansmonria21.wordpress.com)